When operating in Angola, please observe the following general IVAO AO rules:
Whenever practicable, 122.800 and 121.500 should be continuously monitored unless another frequency (ATC station for example) is more appropriate.
All altitudes are above mean sea level (AMSL) in feet.
Transition altitude: 4000ft .
Transition level: FL040.
As no Radar surveillance is available, Squawk code should be 2000, allocated by pilots, without direction from ATC for the purposes specified.
Use these codes unless ATC instruct otherwise:
Code 7700 - Aircraft Emergency
Code 7600 - Radio Failure Note, the code 7500 (hi jack) is NOT to be used on the IVAO Network
Code 2000 - When entering Angola airspace from an adjacent region
Do not exceed the 250kts IAS below FL100, unless you have permission from ATC, or the classification of airspace you are flying in means you are exempt from the rule. Military aircraft may also exceed the restriction.
Altimeter settings are in millibars and the standard setting is 1013mb.
If no available ATC
Intentions must be broadcast on the Unicom frequency of 122.800
Charts can be found in the charts section of the website. We strongly recommend you use them.
The Angolan airspace:
Angolan airspace is structured into flight information regions:
- FIR (Flight Information Region): this space extends from the surface (SFC) to the FL245 included
- UIR (Upper Information Region): this space extends above FL245
Air traffic services are provided in the Angolan airspace , the management of which has been entrusted to Angola by ICAO and which includes:
- Luanda FIR (FNAN)
Air traffic services
There are 3 main services available in our controlled airspace::
- Flight Information Service
- Alerting Service
- Procedural Control Service
Semi Circular Rule:
The semicircular rule (also known as the hemispheric rule) applies, in slightly different version, in all of the world, including in the Angolan controlled airspace.
The standard rule defines an East/West track split:
- Eastbound – Magnetic Track 000 to 179° – odd thousands (FL 250, 270, etc.)
- Westbound – Magnetic Track 180 to 359° – even thousands (FL 260, 280, etc.)
At FL 290 and above, if Reduced Vertical Separation Minima are not in use, 4,000 ft intervals are used to separate same-direction aircraft (instead of 2,000 ft intervals below FL 290), and only odd flight levels are assigned, depending on the direction of flight:
- Eastbound – Magnetic Track 000 to 179° – odd flight levels (FL 290, 330, 370, etc.)
- Westbound – Magnetic Track 180 to 359° – odd flight levels (FL 310, 350, 390, etc.)
RVSM Reduced Vertical Separation Minima
RVSM means Reduced Vertical Separation Minima - or in plain english the reduction of the vertical separation required between FL290 and FL410 from 2000ft to 1000ft. By doing this you double the amount of airspace available, therefore doubling the traffic capacity. With the skies getting busier and busier every day the need for more room has become more and more important.
In the real world aircraft must have some equipment aboard to be RVSM certified and therefore take advantage of the reduced separation minimum.
Aircraft who do not meet the standards are excluded from RVSM airspace except for the purpose of climbing or descending to/from the CVSM airspace above FL410. (Exceptions do exist though, see bottom of page for complete listing.)
In the real world this was a costly affair for operators who still had older aircraft in their fleet. On IVAO there isn't much to it, as any aircraft can be considered RVSM, or non-RVSM.
Pilots flying through RVSM airspace continue using the Odd-East / West-Even rule up to FL410, after which the airspace becomes CVSM.
Use the following table for reference:
RVSM airspace (the new way)
West track (180°-359°) Even Altitudes: 4,000 ft 6,000 ft 8,000 ft 10,000 ft 12,000 ft 14,000 ft 16,000 ft FL 180 ... FL 280 FL 300 FL 320 FL 340 FL 360 FL 380 FL 400 FL 430 FL 470 FL 510 ...
East track (000°- 179°) Odd Altitudes: 5,000 ft 7,000 ft 9,000 ft 11,000 ft 13,000 ft 15,000 ft 17,000 ft FL 190 ... FL 290 FL 310 FL 330 FL 350 FL 370 FL 390 FL 410 FL 450 FL 490 FL 530
- The altitudes in route within the FIR Luanda are under rule Semi-circular. Means traffic that flies between 0 and 179 degrees will have to fly an "odd level" (eg FL190, 210, 230, etc..) And between 180 to 359 degrees one "event level" (eg FL180, 200, 220 , etc.)..
- Above FL290, entered into the space RVSM (Reduced vertical separation minima). The separation continues as above with the exception of space Oceanic AORRA. Between FL290 and FL410 is eapaço RVSM. After FL410 ceases to exist and the RVSM separation passes for 4,000 feet between levels.
- The VFR traffic crossing above 3000 feet MSL follows the same rule adding 500 feet. (e.g. 3,500, 5,500, 7,500, etc.).. The highest level of flight to VFR traffic is FL 195.
- To operate in RVSM airspace the aircraft must be certified to do so and include the letter W in field 10A Flight Plan. Otherwise should remain vertical separation of 2000 feet.
The longitudinal separation usually applied in Luanda FIR within the same flight level and the same course is 20 minutes. The minimum longitudinal separation between jet aircraft flying in the same direction and level flight is 10 minutes if traffic ahead hold a speed equal to or superior to that above, or:
- 9 minutes if traffic ahead hold a speed Mach 0.02 faster than the above.
- 8 minutes if traffic ahead hold a speed Mach 0.03 faster than the above.
- 7 minutes if traffic ahead hold a speed Mach 0.04 faster than the above.
- 6 minutes if traffic ahead hold a speed Mach 0.05 faster than the above.
- 5 minutes if traffic ahead hold a speed Mach 0.06 faster than the above.
- On routes defined by significant points , position reporting should be made on , and as soon as possible after passing through each compulsory reporting point . Positions reporting information may be requested by the ATS unit when deemed necessary for air traffic service .
- In route that are not defined by dots significant positions reporting should be made as soon as possible after half an hour of flight and then at intervals of one hour.
- Contents of positions reporting:
- Aircraft identification
- Time ( Zulu time)
- Flight Level
- Next position and estimated time
- Next Position
VFR aircraft will come into contact with the control unit allocated according to the following procedures :
- As soon as possible after takeoff
- When changing frequency
- With the target in sight
- On long-haul flights a position reporting should be fair at intervals not exceeding one hour.
- Takeoff Separation
- When necessary the matches sequenced, the controller responsible should take into consideration the following times:
- 5 minutes if traffic involved to follow suit after takeoff.
- 2 minutes if traffic is followed at least 40kts faster than the follower.
- 1 minute if the course will soon diverge off at least 45 degrees.