The purpose of this document is to ensure that quality service is provided at all times in Angola airspace, and also so that a controller will never find himself submerged, and unable to cope.
It is mandatory for all IVAO members controlling an Angolan position to follow these guidelines. Users who do not comply may be asked to close their position.
- Active controllers should be able to use all functions of IvAc, and have read the manual thoroughly.
- All controllers must maintain their ATIS with the following information:
- Position name (Full name, not ICAO code. e.g. 'Luanda Approach', not FNLU_APP)
- Voice channel (if applicable)
- Weather / runway information / TA/TL (if applicable)
- No unnecessary remarks in the remarks section
The language used for aviation in Angola is english and portuguese, with express refusal of any other language.
- All controllers must use standard phraseology at all times.
- When available, controllers should read and understand the appropriate airport/sector procedures before logging on. If you should have any doubts please don't hesitate to contact the ou DIr, or TC.
- Controllers are required to have all applicable charts available while on duty.
- Controllers must make proper use of all datatag labels (F5 = cleared waypoint, F7 = cleared speed, and F8 = cleared altitude) when handing-off to adjacent sectors. We highly recommend you use these functions at all times.
In addition to the above controllers are required to meet the requirements set out in the position SOPs.
The Angolan airspace:
Angolan airspace is structured into flight information regions:
- FIR (Flight Information Region): this space extends from the surface (SFC) to the FL245 included
- UIR (Upper Information Region): this space extends above FL245
Air traffic services are provided in the Angolan airspace , the management of which has been entrusted to Angola by ICAO and which includes:
- Luanda FIR (FNAN)
Air traffic services
There are 3 main services available in our controlled airspace::
- Flight Information Service
- Alerting Service
- Procedural Control Service
Flight Information Service:
A Flight Information Service (FIS) is a non-radar service provided, either separately or in conjunction with other services, for the purposes of supplying information useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flights. Under a FIS the following conditions apply: Provision of the service includes information about weather, changes of serviceability of facilities, conditions at aerodromes and any other information pertinent to safety.
- The controller may attempt to identify the flight for monitoring and co-ordinationpurposes only. Such identification does not imply that a radar service is being provided or that the controller will continuously monitor the flight.
- Pilots must be left in no doubt that they are not receiving a radar service.
- Controllers are not responsible for separating or sequencing aircraft.
An alerting service is provided to notify appropriate organisations regarding aircraft in need of search and rescue aid, and assist such organisations as required.
Procedural Control Service:
Procedural control is a method of providing air traffic control services without the use of radar. It is used in regions of the world, specifically sparsely-populated land areas and oceans, where radar coverage is either prohibitively expensive or is simply not feasible. It also may be used at very low-traffic airports, or at other airports at night when the traffic levels may not justify staffing the radar control positions, or as a back-up system in the case of radar failure.
Semi Circular Rule:
The semicircular rule (also known as the hemispheric rule) applies, in slightly different version, in all of the world, including in the Angolan controlled airspace.
The standard rule defines an East/West track split:
- Eastbound – Magnetic Track 000 to 179° – odd thousands (FL 250, 270, etc.)
- Westbound – Magnetic Track 180 to 359° – even thousands (FL 260, 280, etc.)
At FL 290 and above, if Reduced Vertical Separation Minima are not in use, 4,000 ft intervals are used to separate same-direction aircraft (instead of 2,000 ft intervals below FL 290), and only odd flight levels are assigned, depending on the direction of flight:
- Eastbound – Magnetic Track 000 to 179° – odd flight levels (FL 290, 330, 370, etc.)
- Westbound – Magnetic Track 180 to 359° – odd flight levels (FL 310, 350, 390, etc.)
RVSM Reduced Vertical Separation Minima
RVSM means Reduced Vertical Separation Minima - or in plain english the reduction of the vertical separation required between FL290 and FL410 from 2000ft to 1000ft. By doing this you double the amount of airspace available, therefore doubling the traffic capacity. With the skies getting busier and busier every day the need for more room has become more and more important.
In the real world aircraft must have some equipment aboard to be RVSM certified and therefore take advantage of the reduced separation minimum.
Aircraft who do not meet the standards are excluded from RVSM airspace except for the purpose of climbing or descending to/from the CVSM airspace above FL410. (Exceptions do exist though, see bottom of page for complete listing.)
In the real world this was a costly affair for operators who still had older aircraft in their fleet. On IVAO there isn't much to it, as any aircraft can be considered RVSM, or non-RVSM.
Pilots flying through RVSM airspace continue using the Odd-East / West-Even rule up to FL410, after which the airspace becomes CVSM.
Use the following table for reference:
RVSM airspace (the new way)
West track (180°-359°) Even Altitudes: 4,000 ft 6,000 ft 8,000 ft 10,000 ft 12,000 ft 14,000 ft 16,000 ft FL 180 ... FL 280 FL 300 FL 320 FL 340 FL 360 FL 380 FL 400 FL 430 FL 470 FL 510 ...
East track (000°- 179°) Odd Altitudes: 5,000 ft 7,000 ft 9,000 ft 11,000 ft 13,000 ft 15,000 ft 17,000 ft FL 190 ... FL 290 FL 310 FL 330 FL 350 FL 370 FL 390 FL 410 FL 450 FL 490 FL 530
TMA Luanda (FNLU_APP)
- Circle with a radius of 120 nm centered at VNA VOR Luanda
- 3100 MSL-FL165 Class E
- FL165-Unlimited Class A
CTR Luanda (FNLU_TWR)
- Circle with a radius of 15 nm centered at VNA VOR Luanda
- 0AGL-3000 MSL Class C
CTR Cabinda (FNCA_TWR)
- Circle with a radius of 15 nm centered at NDB CA Cabinda, with an exception of a zone skirted the border with the DRC
- 0AGL-3000 MSL Class C
CTR Catumbela (FNCT_TWR)
- Circle with a radius of 15 nm centered at ARP Airport Catumbela
- 0AGL-3000 MSL Class C
FIR / UIR Luanda (FNAN_CTR)
- Continental Area / AORRA Airways including: Class G
- (With the exception of Luanda TMA and Luanda, Cabinda and Catumbela CTR’s)
Note for Pilots: All of the traffic that is NOT within the limits of Luanda, Cabinda and Catumbela CTR’s and Luanda TMA airspace are considered at Golf Airspace, which is not a controlled airspace .
In this type of airspace we only provide flight information services ( FIS ) or aerodrome flight information servisse (AFIS) if traffic in the vicinity of an uncontrolled aerodrome . Nobody is obliged to respond to calls from the controller. The most appropriate procedure will is to inform via chat that traffic information service is available.
Note for ATCs: Those who wish to open a position different from that mentioned above may do so respecting the following format approved by IVAO rules as an example:
Huambo Tower : FNHU_I_TWR
Saurimo Tower: FNSA_I_TWR
The "I" stands for " Information" , ie the type of service provided by the radio operator . Since these airfields are "uncontrolled " , there is no control service , but Aerodrome Flight Information System (AFIS ) is applicable, usually within 27NM ( 50km ) by a Radio Operator. The Radio Operator is not a controller and has no authority over traffic , only the information about the weather conditions and, traffic in the area and some other small informations, etc. Traffic separation is always the pilot responsibility. The callsign to be used will be " Huambo Radio " or "Saurimo Radio " and never " Huambo Tower " or " Saurimo Tower "
Currently there is no primary or secondary radar radar in Luanda FIR. So do not carry out operations of separation and radar vectoring, and the position of traffic in IVAC maintained only for monitoring.
As a result should not be assigned SSR code "discrete", ie unique code for each aircraft. Instead it may be assigned a unique "non-discrete" in the case of the 1000 and withdraw options IVAC the "squawk code duplicate check" Menu PVD / Label Route Options. That way you can see the entire label traffic without assigning a "discrete" SSR code in NRA (Non Radar Airspace) which would be unrealistic.
- The altitudes in route within the FIR Luanda are under rule Semi-circular. Means traffic that flies between 0 and 179 degrees will have to fly an "odd level" (eg FL190, 210, 230, etc..) And between 180 to 359 degrees one "event level" (eg FL180, 200, 220 , etc.)..
- Above FL290, entered into the space RVSM (Reduced vertical separation minima). The separation continues as above with the exception of space Oceanic AORRA. Between FL290 and FL410 is eapaço RVSM. After FL410 ceases to exist and the RVSM separation passes for 4,000 feet between levels.
- The VFR traffic crossing above 3000 feet MSL follows the same rule adding 500 feet. (e.g. 3,500, 5,500, 7,500, etc.).. The highest level of flight to VFR traffic is FL 195.
- To operate in RVSM airspace the aircraft must be certified to do so and include the letter W in field 10A Flight Plan. Otherwise should remain vertical separation of 2000 feet.
The longitudinal separation usually applied in Luanda FIR within the same flight level and the same course is 20 minutes. The minimum longitudinal separation between jet aircraft flying in the same direction and level flight is 10 minutes if traffic ahead hold a speed equal to or superior to that above, or:
- 9 minutes if traffic ahead hold a speed Mach 0.02 faster than the above.
- 8 minutes if traffic ahead hold a speed Mach 0.03 faster than the above.
- 7 minutes if traffic ahead hold a speed Mach 0.04 faster than the above.
- 6 minutes if traffic ahead hold a speed Mach 0.05 faster than the above.
- 5 minutes if traffic ahead hold a speed Mach 0.06 faster than the above.
- On routes defined by significant points , position reporting should be made on , and as soon as possible after passing through each compulsory reporting point . Positions reporting information may be requested by the ATS unit when deemed necessary for air traffic service .
- In route that are not defined by dots significant positions reporting should be made as soon as possible after half an hour of flight and then at intervals of one hour.
- Contents of positions reporting:
- Aircraft identification
- Time ( Zulu time)
- Flight Level
- Next position and estimated time
- Next Position
VFR aircraft will come into contact with the control unit allocated according to the following procedures :
- As soon as possible after takeoff
- When changing frequency
- With the target in sight
- On long-haul flights a position reporting should be fair at intervals not exceeding one hour.
- Takeoff Separation
- When necessary the matches sequenced, the controller responsible should take into consideration the following times:
- 5 minutes if traffic involved to follow suit after takeoff.
- 2 minutes if traffic is followed at least 40kts faster than the follower.
- 1 minute if the course will soon diverge off at least 45 degrees.